Now, It's Time to Quit Putzing Around
Making Parts
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16 March 2018:
Can you believe it??!!  The first part of the engine is made!  The top header.  This is the part that, along with the bottom header, sandwiches the water jacket and piston liner.
        Do you think this tool is too small for my lathe?                                      Turning the O.D. with a smaller tool.                                    Finished top header with the blank for the water jacket. 

I am off to a questionable start.  After blanking out what I thought was 1/2" steel, I measured it and it is 12mm or 0.472".  Because I didn't want to buy any more steel than I need to, I went ahead and modified the drawings for the top and bottom headers so the engine would come out right.

Maybe tomorrow, I can get a start on the bottom header, also made from the 12mm steel.

Most of the dimensioned drawings are far enough along so I can compile a materials list.  Sometime late next week, I'll order that batch of parts so I can continue.  Otherwise, I will work on some of the smaller parts that I have material for.
18 March 2018:
I'm just about done with the two decks and the water jacket.
The top deck fitted to the water jacket, ready for drilling                                  Milling bottom deck to dimension.                                   Bottom deck on face plate ready for jacket groove.  
 I will have to make a trepanning tool to cut the groove and will get to that tomorrow.  

My Texas friend has sent me some injector pump parts from a TD-40 tractor.  That will be good for study on one of the days I'm in the mood to think injectors. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
20 March 2018:
Well, I tried to trepan the groove in the lower deck for the water jacket.  Chatter city!  Reboot the process. I ended-up using the rotary table and a 0.187" carbide mill to make it and it turned out fine although it took a while.
Milling the groove for the water jacket.                                                 All trussed-up for welding.      
Milling the groove instead of trepanning it most likely resulted in a better job with a good fit.  I'm using a length of 1/2-13 threaded rod to hold the "sandwich" together for welding.  That will happen in a few days when I get the nerve to do it.  Buzz box or wire welder - I haven't figured that one out.  I may try the wire welder.  If it won't do the job, I can always go over it with the stick welder.

   Jet gets to sell me yet another gear!
While rough dressing the jacket, the lathe stopped feeding.  Drat!  Yet another of the plastic gears took a hike, most likely from the heavy cuts I've been doing.  I can't really blame Jet because I'm probably asking it to do a lot more than it was designed to do.  

Shoulda gotten the next bigger lathe when I set up my shop.  Too late now because this may be the last engine I build.  I'm thinking
 about selling my cycle trailer full of engines, keeping three plus The Mighty Hoyt-Clagwell for playtime.  If anyone has an idea as to how to price them, let me know.
24 March 2018:
Back at it again.  Today, I wire welded the top deck to the jacket.  You're gonna laugh but I've got an excuse.
   Starting the "hiding" operation.                                                   Top deck welded to jacket finished.

It's getting to where I have trouble seeing where I'm going when welding so I have a lot of oddball tracks and build up.  Thank goodness my spare (not too bad) lathe feed reduction gear is ueseable.  This allowed me to get the outside of the jacket slicked-up.

As you can see, I have the bottom of the liner chucked in the 3 jaw.  Earlier, I carefully centered it in the 4 jaw and trued-up the I.Ds of both ends for a short distance to have a good reference.  When turning the welds down, I made an aluminum plug that presses into the bore that the liner will press into.  It has a center in it that allows me to machine the assembly while it's hanging-out of the chuck.  Even with this, I could only take 0.005" off of the radius without getting some chattering.  Slicking up the jacket took a couple of hours.

When the cylinder liner cast iron bar comes in, I will turn the outer diameter to 1.750" for a half inch or so for a press fit in the top deck.  The rest of the liner O.D. will be turned to about 0.005" smaller to fit into the bore in the bottom deck.  After getting all that settled, I will clamp up the lower deck, liner and top deck/jacket again and weld the works to the lower deck.  I plan to make the liner a few thousandths proud of the top deck to assure good "squash" on the 0.015" thick copper head gasket for a good compression seal.  

The above assembly will be mounted to the face plate and carefully centered.  If the liner is really tight in the assembly, I may just drill it to 3/4" then bore it to the finish 1.125".  Since chatter is always a problem, I may have to use the steady rest to keep everything happy.  That's one good reason to have the O.D. of the jacket nice and smooth.  After finishing, I'll probably have to polish out the mark that the steady will make.

At this point, I'm not really sure how I'm going to clean-up the weld at the base of the cylinder.  I may attach it to the rotary table and clean it up to some kind of decent radius with a milling cutter.

The $400 worth of parts from McMaster-Carr should start arriving Monday.  Since I don't have the use of a water jet cutter, I have to whittle everything out of steel pieces.  I now have to buy the steel new instead of going to the scrap yard for it.  To keep from having to spend weeks bandsawing the steel, I have to order it cut close to length and width which makes the job a LOT easier.

Later on, I will order the 11-inch flywheels ($60 each) from Martin's Models.  The timing gears (redesigned to a simple two-spur gear arrangement for cheap) are available from Motion Industries and will be another $150 or so.  This one's gonna be expensive!
27 March 2018:
Moving right along.........   With a few bumps along the road.

Most of the metal arrived yesterday, just in time for me to machine the cast iron  rod into a cylinder liner.  The O.D. was done and then I rough drilled the bore to 3/4, the largest drill bit I have.
                  Hogging out the bore.                                                       The injection pump and injector Doc sent me.

I was all ready to start on the boring then........DRAT!  I don't have a long enough boring bar and nothing to make it from.   Oh, well.  Just another 30 bucks spent with Ebay for three 3/4" X 6" brazed bars.  That should be a lifetime supply.

When the mail came in, there was a slightly beat-up package waiting for me.  It was the injection pump from a deceased Lombardini engine.  Doc, otherwise known as Thaumaturge was good enough to send it to me for the shipping.  It will be educational to check it out when the time comes.  Thanks!!

I decided to go ahead and weld the jacket and top deck to the bottom deck.  I bolted them-up and proceeded to make a real mess.  I'm gonna have to bolt it to the face plate and spend about a month some afternoon cleaning it up, filling the holes and cleaning it up again.

The timing gears should be in in a few days.  I am trying to get up the nerve to order the wheels!
29 March 2018:
The wire weld was cleaned-up and the bottom deck was re-welded to the jacket.
Turning off the really bad weld.                                                      After re-welding with stick welder                                                 Slicking up the O.D. of the jacket.
As you can see in the left photo above, the wire weld was really, really ugly.  When I got down to the root, I found that, although it was as ugly as home made sin, there were very few voids.  After getting down to the bottom of the old weld, I took it outside and used the stick welder.  Since I can't see very well to weld, I just grabbed a couple of  1/8" 7014 contact rods, cranked the current up to about 200 amps and smoked it together.  It still isn't the prettiest weld going but it is certainly stuck together now.  I used a rotary file in the die grinder to remove the most major warts then turned the O.D. of the jacket to make it pretty again.
Facing the bottom of the bottom deck.                                                   More facing.  Not quite there yet..                                         Un-bored liner in press for Loktite to set.
After flipping the cylinder assembly around in the lathe, the bottom of the bottom deck was faced to remove the warpage from welding.  I had to take off about 0,025" to get it flat out to the mounting post holes so will have to do a little shortening of the rod to compensate for it.

Lastly, it came out of the lathe and was cleaned up with acetone then, after applying a coat of Loktite, the liner was pressed into the cylinder assembly.

Tomorrow, I will face the top of the top deck and the liner and then wait for my new boring bars to arrive.

I could always start on other parts but may just run an engine tomorrow afternoon.   
30 March 2018:
Okay, I'm ready to bore the cylinder.........When is the boring bar going to get here?
Ready to go!
The top of the liner and top deck are faced.  It will be interesting to see just what the finished dimension between the top of the top deck and the bottom of the bottom deck ends-up being.
31 March 2018:
This morning, I got the basics of the engine frame uprights done.  I still have to drill and tap some holes for parts that bolt to it but that can wait until later.
                        Setting the angle for milling the ends of the uprights.                                                                                                        Semi-finished uprights.
The ends of the uprights are drilled and tapped 3/8-24 perpendicular to the surface of the ends that required using my el-cheapo Harbor Freight electronic angle finder.  I have found one problem with the device and that is that the bottom of the case that rests (with magnets) on the workpiece is not flat.  It teeters a little so, with a little help from my sturdy belt sander, that little problem goes away.

Finally boring the cylinder.

Just about the time I got finished with the uprights, the mail came and.....SURPRISE, SURPRISE!     The boring bars arrived so I got started on the cylinder bore.  With my little lathe, it's a bit of a "boring" job but it will get the job done.  I'll finish it tomorrow and maybe start on the piston.  
1 April 2018:
The cylinder is bored and, to get the taper to under a couple of tenths, I had to do several spring cuts, then spend some quality time with the hone and ended-up with a bore of 1.126" (target was 1.125").  I will compensate by making the piston 0.001" bigger in diameter.
                              Honing the bore.                                                    Base plate and cylinder assembly nearly done.
The cylinder was put in the mill and the head bolt holes (1/4-28) were drilled and tapped.  Left to be done are the water inlet and outlet (1/8NPT) and the cylinder oil port (1/4NPT in the jacket and 1/8NPT in the liner with a 0.100 hole to the bore).  .

The oiler hole will be located so, when the piston is at the bottom of the stroke, the oil hole will be between the bottom ring land and the wrist pin hole with a small hole drilled in the piston to allow oil to make it's way to the wrist pin.  I'm using an oillite bushing in the wrist pin because pin lubrication will be iffy there.

I also went ahead and made the base plate.  It's not a complicated part.  The cutout is for the governor weight levers to clear.
2 April 2018:
It didn't seem like I got that much done today but some things are more tedious than others.  I drilled the water jacket 1/8NPT for the coolant inlet and outlet as per the plan (such as it is).  

There were some changes to the oiler setup once I did some thinking.  Instead of using 1/4NPT for the jacket and 1/8NPT for the oil line, I decided to go down one step.  The oil line is now 1/8" steel tubing and the jacket is 1/8NPT.  The liner is drilled part way and tapped for 10-32 and the oil line is screwed into it.  The hole into the liner from the oil line is now #50 (0.070"), which looks better to my eye.

The oil line and the adapter fitting.                                                   The line and adaptor installed.                                                                 The whole thing finished.
Using a piece of 1/2" hex bar stock, I made an adaptor that screwed into the hole in the jacket.  The adaptor was drilled to just clear the 1/8" steel pipe.  The other end was drilled and tapped for 3/8-24 so the elbow fitting made from a piece of scrap steel screws into the adaptor to compress the "O" ring in the adaptor around the oil line.  The elbow is drilled to just clear the 1/8" pipe.

At the top of the elbow, a 10-32 tap drill hole was drilled down to meet the oil line hole and tapped for about five threads of engagement.  Another piece of the 1/8" steel pipe was made into a nipple, threaded 10-32 on both ends.  The end that goes into the oiler was left as it was after using a tubing cutter to cut it to length.  This squeezed the diameter down to somewhat smaller than a 1/8" ball.  The pipe was then drilled to 0.128" almost to the squeezed area.  Then a small brass plug was drilled to #50 and, with a cut across the end that the ball rests on to allow oil to flow.  The ball was dropped into the nipple and the brass plug was pressed into it, giving the ball some room to move.  Voila!  A compression check valve was born.

I've found that the 1/8" steel pipe (probably used for automotive brake lines) is easy to work with and a 10-32 die will make a perfect thread on the O.D.  A plug (starting) tap has enough taper to make a pipe-like thread.

Oh, yes, the oiler is one I made for some engine and didn't use.  Pulled out of "retirememt", it is back in service.  When I get to motoring the engine over, we'll see if there was a specific reason it was put into the oiler box without being used on the engine it was intended for.
4 April 2018:
Well, today was "one of them days".  I got the bolts and assembled the cylinder to the frame and that went fine.
It is starting to look like an engine.
Then, I started on the piston.  That's when things went south.  I got it turned to length and diameter and the bottom end hollowed out.  Then, I turned it around and started on the 3/32" ring grooves.  I never noticed that I'd gotten the dimensions messed up on the drawing and ended-up having to scrap about three hours of work.  The good news is that I've got enough of the ductile iron rod to make another one.  Let's hope I don't screw THAT up!  (As long as I can remember to take the new drawing out to the shop.)
6 April 2018:
After some more time standing at the lathe, I now have a piston that should work.
And, a fine little piston it is!  

It has a diameter of 1.125" (0.001" clearance in bore) at the skirt and 1.120" diameter over the ring area (0.006" clearance.  The wrist pin hole was reamed to 0.250" and, since my el-cheapo reamer cuts a tenth or two oversize, the 0.250" diameter hardened, ground and polished wrist pin will be full floating.  I'm going to use a super oillite bushing in the rod because of the iffy oiling.  I've made some 0.250" diameter by 0.040" long plugs for the ends of the wrist pin in ordeer to protect the cylinder bore.  

It's possible the piston could tighten-up in the bore when the engine has warmed-up but I intentionally left the finish on the skirt just slightly on the rough side so it will both hold oil and wear-in.  I'm guesing that, after the engine has run for a while, the clearance will stabilize at around 0.003".  The small hole diagonal to the wrist pin and below the 4th ring matches with the drip oiler hole in the liner when the piston is at the bottom of the stroke and goes to the inside of the piston above the wrist pin.  The hole intersects the line between the skirt diameter and the piston ring area deiameter and this should make it easier for oil to work around the piston.

The 2-1/8" diameter 3/32" wide rings are ordered from Dave Reed at Otto Gas Engine Works and they should be in on Monday.  I've also ordered a couple of flywheel raw castings.  I used the same ones on The Homebrew Engine, the first one I built. They will finish at around 11" in diameter.

Next will probably be the crankshaft since all the materials are here.  Once I get finished with that, the piece of steel to make the second main bearing should be here so I can do those.

Somewhere in there, I will do the rod and will then have something I can motor over.  
7 April 2018:
Worked on the mains today.  There was a lot of bandsawing and cleaning-up to do but all that remains is to fit the bushings and work out lubrication.  Maybe the two spigot drip oiler I tried on The Upside Down Engine when it was suffering from slide valves would work.  I might as well use it for something.
          Cutting off the bearing caps.                                        Here are all the cuts that had to be made on each part.                                        Semi-finished being test fitted.  
I don't know how everybody else gets the bearings at the right location but the way I do it is to first, drill and tap the base (with the cap uncut) for the bolts and put witness marks so everything can be put back in the same location and orientation.  Then the caps are sawed off.  The bases are put in the mill and the surfaces are milled to the correct height.  The caps are put into the mill and the sawed portion is cleaned up.  Everything is deburred.

Once all this is done, the caps are bolted on.  In the next installment I will show them set-up stacked in the mill for boring to fit the bearings.

If split bearings are used, shims are put between the caps and the bases.  Then they are bored.  After boring, new shims are made to the same thickness that will lock the bearing halves in place.  Since I'm going to use ready-made integral thrust bronze bushings, I will size the bores for about a half thousandth of crush.  That will hold them in place.
11 April 2018:
Back at it again.  Got the mains bored for the bushings and the bushings pressed in.

Mains done.
After bolting the mains in once more, one of the main pins is inserted to make sure alignment is good.  Right now, I'm not sure if I am going to use the two spigot oiler or not.  It's a bit on the big side for this engine.  I may just make a couple of small grease cups to do the job.  The main caps are drilled and tapped for 10-32.
Facing hardened dowel pin.                                                           Facing a crankshaft cheek.
The next item on the agenda was making the rod pin and necessitated facing the 2.750" dowel pin back to 2.250".  That took a while and a brazed carbide bit because those pins are TOUGH.  The first crankshaft cheek was trued-up and faced to 0.750" thickness.  The cheeks, as delivered, were 1.000" thick so a bit of swarf was generated.  The center hole was bored out to 0.748(-)" so the 0.749" shaft is a press fit.  The main pins will be pressed-in after the counterweight shapes are sawed out and milled to accurate dimensions.

I'm going to drill and ream a 1/2" hole in the counterweights of both cheeks opposite the rod pin.  These will be used with a piece of 1/2" bar stock as an alignment pin for when the cheeks are pressed onto the rod pin.  I will probably make a removeable spacer to go between the cheeks to set the width for the rod bearing.
12 April 2018:
Tomorrow, I will press the crankshaft together.  
   Crankshaft parts ready for the press.
To set the spacing of the crank cheeks, I will just make the rod big end bearing and bolt it onto the crankpin.  I will make it a couple of thousandths of an inch thicker than needed and mill off the excess to give end clearance.

Note the 0.500" pin opposite the crankpin that is a light press fit in the cheek that is shown.  It is a slip fit in the other cheek.  The "plan" is to press the main shafts into the cheeks first.  Then, the alignment pin will be pressed into the right-hand cheek along with the crankpin.  The rod bearing will be set on the crankpin and the other cheek will be laid over the one with the alignment pin and crank pin and the crankpin will be pressed into the other cheek.  I've done this before and it does work, giving nearly perfect alignment of the crankshaft.

I will wait on milling the keyways until I get the flywheels machined and broached.  I am using gib keys.  Then, I will have a measurement for the depth of the keyways.
13 April 2018:
The big end bearing and crankshaft are finished.
Crankshaft and rod bearing in place.
The total "wobularity" of the crankshaft is about 0.003".  In other words, the runout at the far end of one main pin is 0.003".  That is good enough for me.  I did have to put the front main bearing block in the mill and make the holes a little longer due to their being no end play as assembled.  Now, I can get an 0.002" feeler in there.

I guess now I can start on the rod and make three grease cups.
14 April 2018:
The rod is finished (mostly).  I decided to thread the rod into the big end and little end instead of welding them due to my inability to do nice welds.  The little end thread was locktited then screwed really tight.  The big end was also threaded into the plate and a 3/8-24 nut was used to lock it in place after aligning the ends.  To accomodate the nuts on the rod bolts, I had to turn the hex off of the lock nut.
   All the parts ready to assemble.                                                           Rod in place with no shims.
I was planning to have the piston flush with the top deck with 0.100" of shims between the rod bearing and the rod.  As it ended up, with no shims in place, the piston was 0.117" from the deck so it is 0.017" shy of the design goal for maximum conpression ratio of about 22:1.  If I really need it to be that high, all I have to do is to add a 0.017" shim to the pack.

When I had it assembled for a test fit, I found a couple of things that I will need to address.  One is that I cut the rod bolts about 3/8" too short.  New bolts are not a biggie.  The second thing I noticed is that the rod bearing is really loose.  When I was spinning it, I could hear the tell-tale double knock.  I'll have to check to see what happened there.   Worst case, I'll have to make another one.  It's only a half-day's work.  If I make enough of them, I will get good at it.

17 April 2018:
The flywheels came in yesterday and are hung on the crankshaft for a show 'n tell.
    The flywheel castings as received.                                     Hubs machined to fit the crankshaft.
First thing, I had to bandsaw off the gating.  Otherwise, I wouldn't be able to get them on the mill!  The hubs were bored to fit the crankshaft and, tomorrow, I'll finish the fixture to mount the wheels in the mill using my biggest collet.  Then, I can machine the O.D.'s and the sides of the rims.

After I get that done, I will broach keyways in the flywheel hubs.  Then, knowing the depth of the flywheel keyways, I can figure the depth of the keyways in the crank and mill them for fitting the gib keys.  Next up will be the crankshaft timing gear then I can assemble what I've got and start motoring it to seat the rings.
18 April 2018:
It took all day but I did manage to get the flywheel rims machined.  I'm not sure, but I think these are cast of malleable iron, not gray cast.  The reason is that, with the previous set of wheels I machined on the mill using my reverse lathe method, it all went well.  This time, all the first one wanted to do was chatter, no matter what the tool grind, spindle speed or feed rate.  Even taking 0.005 cuts, the first wheel I did had some really ugly chatter marks and, no matter what I tried (I even wrapped the spokes with lead solder with little improvement), I couldn't get rid of them.  Finally, not wanting to waste more of the iron, I got my small disk grinder and, while it spun in the mill, ground off the chatter marks.  Of course, the grinder left it's own marks and I wore out a file trying to get rid of them.  Finally, I sanded it until it was semi-presentable.

The second wheel went better.  I think there were some hard spots in the first one that made the machining unstable.
The "final Solution".                                                                                                                                 The finished wheels.                                                   
What finally worked was to clamp some boards across the spokes.  This damped the nastural period of oscillation of the casting and made the ringing (chattering) almost completely go away.  In the two photos on the right above, the left-hand wheel is the one that I had to resort to the grinder to fix.  The one on the right is the one that had the wood "dampering devices" attached.

While doing a test fit of the wheels, I discovered once again to FOLLOW THE PRINT when making parts.  The base plate came from the distributor 8" wide and, instead of trimming about 3/4" off that dimension, I decided to just center everything on the wider base.  BZZZZZZT!  WRONG!  As it is now, the wheels contact the base before they are correctly positioned on the crankshaft.  This messes up the governor and doesn't allow enough crankshaft stickout from the hub of the cranking side wheel to be able to make a crank work (if I need one).

All the above means that I have to strip everything off of the base and remove 3/8" from each side then put it all back together.  Oh, well - so, what else is new?
19 April 2018:
No pictures today.  I got the keyways into the wheels and the crankshaft and have the gib keys partially fitted.  I also bored the timing gears.  

Hardly worth the posting, eh?
20 April 2018:
Got the base plate fixed and the engine back together.

           Base plate to size before milling.                                               Engine with wheels, gib keys and timing gear.
After sawing the base plate, it was put into the mill and the cuts were made pretty.

I think I've got the bottom end, piston, rings, etc. finished and buttoned-up and the cranking side flywheel slicked-up.  Before the wheels get too greasy, I think I'll mill the slots for the governor weights in the off-side wheel then slick it up and give 'em both a coat of paint.
22 April 2018:
Yesterday, I had another one of "them days".
Governor weights ready to be assembled.                                     Here's how it looks with the weights on.  
Because the flywheel is a casting and I didn't want to do more with the spokes than file off the flash, making the angled pivot pin mounts for the governor was a real pain.  After screwing-up the first four, I tried again.  This time I only screwed-up one of them.  Then, there was the exercise in getting everything to fit.  There's still a little filing to do as the pivots are a bit stiff.  After that, flywheel painting is next, I guess.
24 April 2018:
Just had another one of  "them days".  I got the flywheels all cleaned-up with acetone and whipped out my can of ecologically friendly water based "enamel" paint.  Spent a couple of hours paintin' 'em up real purdy and, while they dried, I finished the camshaft mounts and put them on.

I don't know what was in the can but it sure wasn't what I'd call real paint.
After the paint dried and I'd dressed the edges of the paint where it slopped over, I was blowing off the sanding dust when this happened!  The danged paint was supposed to be combined primer and paint and could be used on metal or wood.  It sure didn't like the cast iron.  Even where I got it on machined and filed surfaces, it didn't stick at all.  I guess I didn't want painted flywheels after all.  Guess where the rest of that excellent ecologically friendly paint ended-up.
27 April 2018:
Got the wheels cleaned-up and have spent the last couple of days making some of the governor parts.  
Sleeve, isolation bearing and bearing mount.                                Parts as they will be assembled.    
Making the sleeve was a real pain.  It rotates with the crankshaft and the governor weights move it along the length of the crankshaft according to engine speed.  The isolation bearing causes the bearing mount to remain rotationally motionless as the crankshaft, flywheel, governor weights and sleeve rotate.  The bearing mount will have a 0.188" hole drilled into it for a rod that will be vertical and perpendicular to the crankshaft.  The rest of the linkage will be connected to this.

Clear as mud, eh?
28 April 2018:
The rotating part of the governor is done and now I'm working on the basic linkage so I can put a spring to the assembly and be able to motor the engine to check the bearings and start seating the rings..
At low speed.                                                                                 At high speed.
As you will probably note, the governor weights appear to be quite massive for such a small engine.  Because I don't know how much force will be required to move whatever in the fuel system that needs to be moved, I made them rather robust.
05 May 2018:
Back at it after a minor delay.

First motoring.
The governor is finished but I may have to re-do some of the parts.  Although it works, it is sticky.  This is probably because I have the parts fitting too tight.  Also, the isolation bearing wobbles.  I'm not sure where this is coming from so will most likey have to take the whole works off and see if it may be pressed on crooked.
06 May 2018:
Today, the grease cups for the mains were finished.  Once I get the governor binding sorted out, it's onward to injection, head and valves..
Grease cup parts.                                                                        Grease cup on main bearing.                                                                      Grease cup filler.
The grease cups are a bit on the tall side but I figure it will be a long time between re-fillings.  They are made from 1/4" steel bar stock, threaded the whole way 1/4-28.  Into the end of the male part is screwed a short piece of 10-32 bolt that screws into the main bearings.  The brass cap is made from 3/8 hex bar stock, threaded to screw onto the steel part.

Filling the small cups is a challenge so I made a filler gun.  A chunk of brass is drilled and threaded 1/2-20 almost all the way to the end.  The end is drilled 1/8" and a piece of 1/8" copper tubing is soldered in place.  The plunger is a shock absorber bolt.  I may modify it tomorrow to look more purpose built.  The body is easily filled by pressing the grease into the bore.  The displaced air goes out the tubing.  To use it, the tubing is pushed to the bottom of the grease cup and the plunger is screwed into the body, forcing the grease into the cup.  As it fills, the tubing is withdrawn until the cup is full.  Works like a champ!

I suppose it's now time to think about valves.  What I have designed will use something with an overall length of 1.6" (41mm).  The stem diameters are about 0.06875" (1.75mm) and the heads are around 0.375" (9.5mm).  I think something useable can be gotten from a deceased 4-cycle string trimmer or something similar.  If you have some valves, springs and keepers you'd like to donate to the cause, I'm happy to reimburse your postage.
11 May 2018:
Today, in the mail, from a friend from the metropolis of Powderly in the great state of Texas, I received a nice gift.  A couple of valves from a used-up string trimmer.  
The valve train parts.                                                                            The lifter guides.
After I got into the CAD to work out the valves, I found that I can only use the valves themselves.  The stems are a bit larger in diameter than optimal but will do fine.  I will have to turn the valve heads to 0.400" so they will fit inside the combustion chamber.  The guides, springs and keepers are too big but will go into the "miscellaneous small engine parts" bin for possible later use.  Making ththosde parts is trivial and I will get to them directly.

While fiddling in the shop, I got the lifter guides done and installed.  Because I still haven't gotten up the nerve to work on the injector, I will go ahead and build the head.  I have room for a 12-24 screw thread for the injector so will build it around that.

I've been motoring it to break-in the rings and it has loosened up a little.  So far, so good.
12 May 2018:
The cam followers are done and I'm ready to start on the head.
    The cam follower parts                                                              The followers mounted on the engine.                                           Getting ready to start on the head.
The 1/8" slot milled into the follower bodies are for guides to keep them tracking the cam.  You can see the 6-32 screws that engage the slots.  Don't look too hard at the shim/dust seals for the rollers.  If I was about 20 years younger, I think it would be wise to invest in a good punch press so I could make small parts like this.  As it is, the 0.005" shim stock is hard to drill and cut to size.  Oh, well, what's a few wrinkles between friends.

The other day, I got the governor fiddled into shape so it should work all right, provided it doesn't take too much force to change the fuel cutoff point.
13 May 2018:
Started on the head today.  Made a lot of swarf but it is now ready for the internals, bolt holes, etc.

The head, so far.
14 May 2018:
Well, I'll be dipped in doo-doo!

What you get when you don't keep the drawings updated.
When I was working on the drawings, and after I did the basic head drawing, I decided that, to equalize the stress on the top deck, I would change the head bolt circle from 2.312" to 2.625".  That was fine, except that I didn't go back and change the head bolt circle.  I ended-up spending the better part of a day making a hunk of scrap!

The good news is that I have plenty of the malleable cast iron to make another one.  Practice makes perfect and practice makes boring!
15 May 2018:
It may have been boring but I now have a correct head.  It went quicker, too.
        Tool used to form valve seats.                                                        The head on the engine with exhaust pipe.
The valve seats were formed by modifying an old drill bit.  First, one edge was ground to 45 degrees.  Then the other edge was ground back to clear the cut and the O.D. of the bit was turned so it cleared the edge of the combustion chamber.  I put it in the mill, locked the spindle and carefully raised the knee to get the width to where I wanted it.  I think it worked like a champ.  I'll know for sure when I get to lapping the valves.

I'll do the valve guides and the valve keepers next and work out the springs.

After that, I will make the rocker arms, rocker stand and pushrods.  The cams can be done then.  I plan for the intake duration to be about 180 degrees and the exhaust to be about 200 degrees with no overlap.

I'm going to work out the decompression.  It will probably be incorporated into the exhaust rocker arm bearing which I can make eccentric so the valve is held open a few thousandths of an inch when it is actuated.

While working on the head today, I had a thought that, maybe I should make the engine hit and miss to make the pump easier to build.  I can operate the injection pump with a pre-rise on the exhaust cam.  The pump will deliver a fixed amount of fuel when it and the exhaust valve are unlatched.  I'll think about it because there could be some problems making it work.  I won't make that decision until I have studied the Lombardini pump.
16 May 2018:
The valves are modified, the guides are made and in, the keepers are made and springs have been selected.
       Cutting down the valve heads.                                               The valve parts.                                             The head with the leaky valves installed.
I find that, using carbide tooling, I can easily modify the valves.  I cut the valve faces to about 46 degrees and the seats are about 45 degrees.  The valve springs are modified hand lotion pump springs that I happen to have a bunch of.

The keepers were a bit fiddly to make but turned out all right.

After lapping the valves for a bit, I went ahead and made a head gasket and put the head on to see how badly the valves leak.  AND, they do leak.  As per usual with my small engines, I have to do a lot of lapping to get them to seat.  The problem is probably because I can't really accurately machine everything and the lapping has to be the process that makes everything fit.

Oh, yes - I made the head gasket out of some 0.015 Teflon coated gasket stock I use for my spark ignition engines.  I don't know if it will hold-up to the compression but, if it doesn't, I will simply re-make the gasket using some 0.016" copper that I will anneal.  Solid copper works well on The Homebrew Hvid.
18 May 2018:
After taking yesterday off, I spent a few hours lapping the valves.

Various valve lapping supplies and tools.
I started out with coarse emery compound then graduated to fine emery, finishing up with some extremely fine alumina power mixed with oil.  After about three hours, I've got the valves pretty much holding but, just for giggles, I'm going to pull the head once more and give them some more time with the alumina to get a polish on the seats.  When testing the valves, I was motoring the engine.  I could get it to build some compression if I gently put pressure on one valve to allow it to suck in air.  Once I get the head back on after a final lapping, I will make the rocker stand, rockers and cams.  That way, I can motor it with compression to help seat the rings.

And, yes, I do have sore fingers from twirling the plastic tubing that slips over the valve stems.
20 May 2018:
I got the valves lapped to where they don't leak and have made the rocker stand.

And a fine rocker stand it is!
That's it for today.  Hardly worth posting, eh?
23 May 2018:
\I think it looks a little like an engtine now.
  Rockers and pushrods made.                                                          What will end-up as the cams.
The rockers were made by plotting the CAD drawing of them at full size, then gluing the cutouts to the 1/8" steel and roughing them out using the bandsaw.  A bit of creative milling and filing finished them.  The adjuster screw (6-32's) mounts were soft soldered to the rockers.  It will be intereting to see if they hold up.  Pretty low stress area, though.

The cams are next.  I've turned down a piece of "air hardening" mystery steel to the 2.00" major diameter.  I will bore for the shaft and turn the hub of the first one before sawing it off and finishing it.  There is enough of the 2.00" stock to make the second one.  Now, whether or not I actually harden the cams is up for discussion although I never have hardened a cam for of my engines, I don't see the need to start now.
24 May 2018:
We're sneaking up on it.

The cam blanks and camshaft are made.
The cam blanksd are made but the lobes must be machined.  Then the camshaft keyway will be milled and the keyway in the gear broached for a gib key.  I may have to work on the cam bearings because they are too tight.  What I may do is, when the cams are done and everything is back together for motoring, I may just add a little Time Saver lapping compound to them and run them in.  Time Saver will grind itself to nothing and you don't have to take everything apart to clean off the compound.  Just oil the heck out of the bearings and what's left of the compound is washed out.

I may get to machining the cam lobes tomorrow.
25 May 2018:
The cams are done, the camshaft has it's gib key and the engine is timed.

Here is the drawing of how I machined the cams.
The cams are made by mounting each one on the rotary table and using the above drawing to offset the cam from the milling cutter.  Starting at the point shown, the table is moved toward the cutter until it is at the centerline of the cam.  The rotary table is then turned through the angle noted.  Once the angle is reached, the table is again moved upward (as in the drawing) until the tool has cleared the cam.  The actual design of the cam depends on the size of the follower roller and the valve duration desired.

Motoring the engine with compression.
After getting it all back together and the cams timed (zero overlap at this point), the engine was motored to break in the cam bearings and see if it has any compression.  The engine was motored for about 15 minutes (until I had to go out and mow the grass).  I will still have to put some time on the motor because, although it does develop compression, the rings are in need of seating before I'm ready to try for combustion with a naphtha soaked rag.  

Right now, I have three of the five compression shims out to keep from overstressing the rings until they are better seated.  Once I think the rings are ready, I will try the naphtha.  If I don't get any indication of ignition, I will add a shim and try again.  Once the compression is high enough to ignite the naphtha, I will have a starting point for diesel fuel.

When I finish playing with it in it's present state of completion, I will have to get serious about the pump and injection.
27 May 2018:
Today, after motoring it until the temperature got up to about 130F, I gave it a sniff of naphtha.  Nothing.  I added one shim to the rod to increase the compression a couple of points and tried it again.  This time, I got a few nice knocks and the sweet smell of burned naphtha!

As of now, I think I'm in the ballpark of oil ignition once the rings seat a bit more so it's off to the injection system races.  

Meet me on the next page, coming soon.
Boy!  This is fun!

In case you see me about to do something really stupid and want to warn me, here's my email address
[email protected]
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